Mohenjo-daro is an ancient city located in the Larkana district of the Sindh province of Pakistan. It was one of the largest cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE. The city was rediscovered in the 1920s by British archaeologist Sir John Marshall and his team, who carried out extensive excavations and uncovered a wealth of artifacts and structures that provided insight into the lives of the ancient inhabitants of the city.

Mohenjo-daro was a well-planned city with a grid-like street layout, public buildings, and a sophisticated drainage system. The city was divided into two parts, the Citadel, and the Lower City, with the Citadel being the higher elevated area that contained the city’s most important buildings, such as the Great Bath and the Granary. The Lower City was the residential area, where most of the population lived in small houses made of mud bricks.

One of the most intriguing aspects of Mohenjo-daro is the absence of evidence of a ruling class or a centralized government. The city seems to have been a highly egalitarian society, where people enjoyed a relatively equal standard of living. The lack of defensive structures also suggests that the city was not in constant conflict with neighboring communities.

The city’s decline is still a subject of debate among archaeologists and historians, but it is believed to have been caused by a combination of factors such as climate change, natural disasters, and a decline in trade. The city was abandoned around 1900 BCE, and its ruins remained hidden and forgotten for thousands of years until its rediscovery in the 20th century.

Today, Mohenjo-daro is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and its ruins attract thousands of tourists every year. The site provides a fascinating glimpse into the lives of people who lived more than four thousand years ago and their highly sophisticated culture, which was far ahead of its time.